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Ayutthaya was the capital of the kingdom of Thailand for many centuries between 1350 and 1767.
In its heyday, Thai culture and commerce flourished, and lots of foreign merchants resided in the capital, including Dutch, Portuguese, French, English, Japanese etc. Foreign visitors were most impressed by its splendour.
The Burmese invaded Ayutthaya and the capital fell in 1767. Most of the city's temples and religious sculptures were destroyed. However, proud monuments to its glory are still standing, some restored.
Ayutthaya is located about 90 kilometers from Bangkok, and could be visited on an extended daytrip. However, if you are interested in Thai history and ancient monuments, an overnight stay with about two full days of sightseeing is recommended.
Wat Phra Sri Sanphet, Ayutthaya